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See the companion publication: A Checklist and Brainstorming Guide for Trails Training
A study of the development, successes, and future goals of the Colorado Outdoor Training Initiative (now the Outdoor Stewardship Institute).
Also available to download in pdf format (93 kb)
An important goal of COTI is to teach skiils and appreciation
of outdoor resources to a new generation of trail stewards
This study is intended to help states and other organizations develop better programs for training related to trails and outdoor recreation stewardship. The Colorado Outdoor Training Initiative (COTI) is, so far, a unique organization. The problems tackled by COTI, however, are common to public lands across the United States. Land managers at every level face insufficient staff and resources to fully care for trails, parks, and other outdoor recreation facilities. While the assistance of volunteers and nonprofit groups is seen as an important answer, the underlying problem is often a lack of skills and experience.
COTI took on the difficult problem of working cooperatively with every interest in the land management, conservation, and recreation communities. This is the same challenge that State Trails Programs must deal with in allocating federal Recreational Trails Program funds to a wide variety of trail-related projects.
This case study provides a close look at how COTI developed and grew, its support, and its challenges. Additional background materials and details of the training is available from www.cotionline.org. Some of the training currently offered may also be available on a contract basis to other States. COTI partners are also planning to be available to consult with State, other agencies, and nonprofit groups to advance their own training programs.
WHAT IS COTI?
The Colorado Outdoor Training Initiative (COTI) is a statewide partnership of land management agencies and nonprofit organizations focused on training. COTI represents 32 member organizations that support statewide skills training for volunteers, staff and the general public across Colorado.
COTI organizes crew leadership workshops, land stewardship skills trainings, and other educational programming in cooperation with land management agencies and nonprofit organizations. COTI workshops combine traditional lecture-style instruction with hands-on experiential learning in the field.
DEFINING THE NEED
An essential step was turning concerns and anecdotes into clearly defined needs. By expressing a well-documented problem with a realistic solution, the support for the new organization could begin to gather. These are the main statements of the need for better stewardship training:
Colorado's public lands are seeing more and more use than ever before. A 500% increase in state park camping reservations over the past 15 years and a 300% increase in ascents on "Fourteeners" in the last decade illustrate the mounting pressures being placed on the state's natural resources (Colorado State Parks Outdoor Recreation Plan, 2003).
The growing impact of recreational users, combined with declining agency budgets has resulted in an urgent need for volunteers and nonprofit organizations to complete essential conservation work projects. Partnerships between agencies and volunteer organizations increase our ability to preserve and enhance the value of those lands.
Limited numbers of skilled conservation project managers hinder project planning and implementation. The lack of well-trained crew leaders severely limits the ability of agencies to accomplish necessary work and also prevents them from fully using their volunteer base.
GOALS and MISSION
The mission of the Colorado Outdoor Training Initiative (COTI) is to enhance Colorado's public and protected lands by providing conservation leadership and land stewardship skills training.
Specific guiding principles include:
The current Strategic Action Plan for 2005-2010 states:
"By 2010, the Colorado Outdoor Training Initiative (COTI) will be a primary source for conservation leadership and land stewardship skills training across Colorado. In this role, COTI will provide benefits to land managers, nonprofit organizations, and volunteers by increasing the quantity and quality of trained individuals participating in land stewardship projects. Attaining this goal will result in a greater number of highly skilled crews working with volunteers on land stewardship projects. In addition, COTI will provide more opportunities for Colorado citizens to gain skills that will help them maintain and improve the state's natural resources."
Cooperation among agencies and organizations
It was seen as essential to include every interest group involved in outdoor recreation and public land stewardship. The emphasis was on involving every Federal land management agency, the State Trails Program, and major nonprofit organizations. All trails interests were included, both motorized and nonmotorized. Environmental and wildlife groups as well as recreation interests were also included. An emphasis on volunteers was also part of the plan from the beginning.
FIRST STEPS: PLANNING
Five years of thoughtful planning went into developing a foundation for COTI before it began work. In 1998, a steering committee expressed the need for improved outdoor training opportunities in Colorado. After documenting the need, the committee developed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) establishing a cooperative partnership between federal, state and local agencies and volunteer organizations. The MOU defined the broad need for, and interest in an increase in local outdoor training opportunities throughout Colorado. The development of governing by-laws and the election of a Council followed. Eventually, this steering committee created a governing body, secured funding, hired staff, and launched a new program.
COTI began its development as an organization under the guidance of a membership council made up of representatives from a variety of different land management agencies and nonprofit and volunteer organizations. The COTI Council established relationships with partnering organizations, determined the initial direction of the training program, and hired an Executive Director.
In order to effectively and responsibly raise and spend funds, COTI was sponsored by Volunteers for Outdoor Colorado (VOC) which served as its fiscal agent from 2003-2005. COTI's was housed in VOC's offices and its operating budget was managed by VOC staff. Funds were also raised using VOC's status as a nonprofit organization. Initial funding for the development of COTI's training programs was provided by the Colorado State Parks Trails Program.
Transition From Program to Independent Organization
In the fall of 2005, the COTI Council voted to make COTI an independent nonprofit organization. At that time, the Council transitioned into a Board of Directors and COTI received is 501(c)3 designation on November of 2005.
COTI is primarily a volunteer-driven organization. The leadership of the organization is the responsibility of the COTI Board of Directors, its committees and the Executive Director. Support for the day to day operations of the organization and its committees come from two COTI staff members; the Executive Director and the Training and Outreach Coordinator.
COTI's training programs are overseen by the Training Steering Committee (TSC), comprised of individuals from partner agencies and organizations. The TSC is responsible for selecting and developing new training programs as well as managing the current COTI training portfolio. When developing new training programs, the TSC creates Curriculum Development Committees (CDC), consisting of subject matter experts, educators and curriculum developers. CDC members research and write new curricula, plan and evaluate the pilot training and test and evaluate the curricula.
Training delivery is managed by COTI staff in partnership with the volunteer COTI Master Instructors. Master Instructors are highly-experienced professionals or volunteers and are responsible for recruiting, and training Instructors to lead the COTI training workshops. Instructors are COTI's on the ground trainers that volunteer to help organize and lead workshops across the state.
RESEARCH AND SURVEYS
During 2001-02, Volunteers for Outdoor Colorado and a number of public and private partners developed a Blueprint for Outdoor Stewardship research document. This was the first comprehensive, statewide survey of land stewardship needs and volunteer capacity in Colorado. One of the most significant findings of the study was the identification of a major "Local Capacity/Training Gap" that exists between the most pressing stewardship needs and existing volunteer resources, specifically the leadership and expertise available to run those projects. It became clear that a major effort was needed to significantly increase the quality and quantity of volunteer participation in stewardship activities
The need for improving training opportunities was further documented through a statewide survey of land managers as part of the Blueprint project. The survey asked land management agencies to identify their top stewardship priorities over the next five years. In order, they were:
1. Noxious Weed Control (41%)
2. Trail Maintenance (33%)
3. Habitat Enhancement (31%)
4. Environmental Education (28%)
5. Trail Construction (24%).
Land managers also expressed interest in increasing the number of training opportunities in areas like natural resource restoration; 75% of managers who did not provide restoration training would do so if such a training program were made available to them.
In 2006, the Colorado Outdoor Training Initiative also conducted a survey of volunteers, member organizations, and agency partners. Survey results confirmed the findings of the Blueprint. When asked what were the top three training topics COTI should focus on, results were as follows:
1. Trail Maintenance (65.8%)
2. Ecological Restoration (58.2%)
3. Volunteer Management (49.4%)
4. Trail Construction (39.2%)
5 (tie). Weed Management and Trail Planning and Design (31.6%)
A summary of the 2006 COTI Member Survey is also available.
COTI organizes crew leadership workshops, land stewardship skills trainings, and other educational programming in cooperation with land management agencies and nonprofit organizations. COTI workshops combine traditional lecture-style instruction with hands-on experiential learning in the field. COTI provides training in three different categories:
Conservation Leadership Training
COTI offers 2-day trainings designed to prepare individuals to lead crews working on stewardship projects. Using peer-reviewed curricula and standardized training practices, trainees are taught the latest conservation techniques, specific leadership and crew management skills, and the principles of crew safety and risk assessment.
Land Stewardship Skills Training
In order to prepare volunteers and staff for work in the field, COTI offers a variety of technical workshops throughout the year that teach the essential stewardship skills required to get things done.
Additional Training Opportunities
COTI not only trains experienced individuals to serve as Instructors, but also organizes specific workshops through our network of training providers that meet the needs of nonprofit organizations and land management agencies.
TRAINING CURRENTLY OFFERED
Conservation Leadership Training
1. Trail Crew Leader Training
This 2-day training, 16 hour training is designed to provide volunteers and staff from land management agencies and volunteer and nonprofit organizations the skills needed to lead crews on important trail work projects. Participants practice and are taught basic trail construction and maintenance techniques, go through exercises to develop and understand their leadership abilities, and learn the principles of crew safety and risk management. The training is taught by experienced instructors using a mix of classroom teaching and instruction in the field. Participants receive a COTI Guide to Crew Leadership For Trails, a set of Quick Reference Crew Leader Cards, a Trail Terminology handout, and course completion documents. Participants also have the opportunity to apply for Crew Leader Certification.
2. Ecological Restoration Crew Leader Training
This training is designed to teach the fundamentals of natural habitat restoration to volunteers and staff from land management agencies and volunteer and nonprofit organizations. This 2-day training, 16 hour training covers topics including: basic planting, seeding, and erosion control. Participants will also learn specific leadership and crew management skills, in addition to principles of crew safety and risk assessment. The training is taught by experienced instructors using a mix of classroom teaching and instruction in the field. Participants receive a COTI Guide to Crew Leadership For Ecological Restoration, a set of Quick Reference Crew Leader Cards, and course completion documents.
1. Trails Crew Leader Instructor Training
This Instructor workshop is open to experienced volunteers and staff from nonprofit organizations and land management agencies that have excellent outdoor leadership skills, teaching competency, and technical trail construction knowledge. COTI Master Instructors teach participants how to use the COTI Instructor's Guide to Teaching Crew Leadership for Trails to teach basic trail maintenance and construction, safety, tool use and crew leadership principles. The course is completed in two eight-hour days with both classroom and on-site, outdoor locations. Instructor training is offered 3-4 times per year in several locations across Colorado.
2. Ecological Restoration Crew Leader Instructor Training
Volunteers and staff from nonprofit organizations and land management agencies that have knowledge of restoration and habitat enhancement, teaching skills, and leadership experience are encouraged to attend this training. Using the COTI Instructor's Guide to Teaching Crew Leadership for Ecological Restoration, participants are taught how to teach crew leaders basic restoration skills, tool safety and risk management, and important leadership principles.
Instructor trainings are designed for organizations that want to enhance or expand existing crew leader training programs. Upon completion, all Instructors can train volunteers and staff from their host agency or organization and are also asked to train at least five crew leader trainees at one or more of the pre-planned crew leader training workshops. Each course is unique because the location, trail and sponsoring agency are different. Crew Leader Instructors have the flexibility to rearrange the presentation order to accommodate specific goals of a sponsoring organization, or restrictive weather conditions. However, the material in the manual must be covered to ensure that participants will qualify for course completion documents.
Training Topic Descriptions Proposed for 2007
The following are brief summaries of the curricula and training programs that COTI plans to develop and pilot during the upcoming program year. The four training topics were selected by members of the COTI Training Steering Committee using input from program partners and data from the 2002 Blueprint for Outdoor Stewardship and the 2006 COTI Member Survey.
Curriculum Development Committees, made up of indivduals from land management agencies and nonprofit organizations with expertise in one or more of the subject areas, will use the following descriptions as a starting point as they work on developing their specific curriculum and training program:
1. Weed Management: a one-day training for volunteers and staff to include weed identification, history of introductions, weed ecology, and treatment options.
2. Trail Maintenance Skill Workshops: a menu of skill-based trainings (1/2 day to 1 day) focusing on trail maintenance topics from tread maintenance to corridor maintenance to water diversion structure maintenance. The actual menu of trainings to be developed during the first year will be established by the subcommittee.
3. Project Management: a two-day workshop that will provide participants with the skills and knowledge necessary to interface with a land management agency to plan, implement and accomplish a specific conservation project (think adopt-a-projects).
4. Sustainable Mountain Trails: Assessment, Planning & Design: a two to three-day introductory course for individuals interested in learning successful tools and techniques to assess, plan, design and implement a high's multiple-use mountain trail according to sustainability criteria.
CURRICULUM AND RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
The Crew Leadership for Trails and Crew Leadership for Ecological Restoration curricula and workshops represent the hard work of multi-agency committees that spent over a year researching and compiling the curricula content. For the Trails training program, the curriculum content was written from 2003-2004 and open for a statewide review and piloted at training workshops during 2004. In 2005, COTI launched the newly completed Crew Leader Training for Ecological Restoration program.
During the process, the committees also need to complete each of the Instructor Guides, which provide a comprehensive teaching resource for the Crew Leadership training. The COTI Instructor's Guides are designed to help with teaching the basic skill set required (for either trails or restoration) along with safety, tool use, and crew leadership principles. The content can also be inserted into existing training programs offered by other organizations.
The Instructor's Guide was put together after reviewing many existing resources. The content and illustrations of the final document were compiled from three principle sources:
1. Protected Area Management Services by Larry Lechner
2. Crew Leader Manual, 5th Ed., by Volunteers for Outdoor Colorado
3. Trail Construction and Maintenance Notebook, 2000 Ed, by USDA Forest Service
Eighteen representatives of agencies and interest groups served on the Curriculum Committee. An additional 42 representatives formally reviewed the document. Finally, the draft of the Instructor's Guide for Crew Leadership for Trails was open to a statewide review prior to pilot training and final publication.
Training Workshop and Curriculum Development Process
The following is a summary of the process in which the Colorado Outdoor Training Initiative will follow when developing and/or adopting new General Skills Curricula and Workshops.
The proposed training topic/curriculum must align with one of the training needs identified in previous COTI member surveys and needs assessments. If not, the individual or organization presenting the workshop for development must include a needs assessment that is judged satisfactory by the Training Steering Committee (TSC).
Workshop and Curriculum Selection
Any individual, organization, or COTI member can submit a workshop topic/curriculum for review by completing a short application and questionnaire to ensure that the training topic/curriculum meets COTI standards and guidelines. New training topics that are submitted will be reviewed and selected for development each year by the Training Steering Committee.
Once selected for development, the TSC will convene a subcommittee. of interested and qualified individuals to begin the curriculum adoption/development process. The curriculum (including instructor guide and trainee manual) will be developed/modified by the committee to ensure that it meets COTI-approved standards and required elements.
Piloting and Evaluation
Once the curriculum is developed, COTI will test and evaluate the curricula through a series of pilot trainings. The workshops will be led by experienced individuals that assisted with the curriculum development process or other individuals that are deemed qualified by the subcommittee. members to be Instructors and trained to deliver the training. Evaluations from participants and instructors will be used to make any needed modifications to the curriculum and workshop format.
Review and Final Approval
Upon completion of the pilot and testing process, the TSC will review the workshop results, instructor evaluations, and agency/organization/volunteer demand and make a final decision whether or not to include the training as part of COTI's portfolio.
After final approval from the TSC, COTI will begin the process of recruiting and training additional instructors, print manuals and supporting materials and include the training workshop as part of its annual training calendar.
August - September: Proposals reviewed by the TSC and decisions made
October - February: Subcommittee. convened and curriculum is developed
February - March: Instructors trained and curriculum is modified as needed
March - July: Pilot workshops held and evaluated, curriculum is modified as needed
August: Training Steering Committee gives final approval to include training as part of COTI portfolio
When developing the delivery method for training workshops it is important to consider the following:
1. Statewide Application. COTI is a statewide organization and must develop a plan where it can easily deliver training workshops anywhere in the state. It is recommended that COTI use a decentralized approach, similar to the train-the-trainer model that it uses for crew leadership training.
2. Limited Staff Resources. It is recommended that general skills training workshops be organized so that COTI staff do not need to be present at the workshops.
3. "V Outdoors" Website. This is a tool that COTI can use to manage workshop participation. It is recommended that all COTI instructors learn how to use the system. It is also very important that V Outdoors is designed to make access to workshop rosters for both COTI staff and instructors at the same time.
4. Existing Training Opportunities. As many organizations offer some kind of training, COTI needs to figure out its relationship to these existing opportunities. It is recommended that COTI focus on offering training in topics where there is a gap, rather than competing against other organizations. It is also recommended that training topics, to a certain degree, be market driven, where instructors offer to teach training topics and COTI solicits for instructors for workshops that have a history for being popular.
5. Instructor Preparation. Good instructors are crucial to delivering the ultimate product: enthusiastic, well-trained volunteers and staff. It is recommended that COTI adopt the Colorado Free University and Longmont Free University model for instructor recruitment and management. In these instances, instructors contract with CFU and LFU to teach.
Other steps must be taken to assure a level of quality for participants. Instructors must complete and submit a copy of their lesson plans. They must also verify that they are using published or reputable training materials. A training workshop is used to help prepare instructors.
Essential preparation for instructors includes:
1. Orientation to the COTI organization
2. Expectations of instructors
3. How to develop a lesson plan, syllabus, and teaching notes.
4. Review of evaluation process and COTI's opt-out policy if workshops do not perform well
5. How to arrange for trainee lodging if required, food, and tools or other supplies for the training.
DOCUMENTING THE BENEFITS
For COTI member organizations, as well as potential funders, it is essential to document the accomplishments and benefits of the effort. It is also important in recruiting and retaining volunteers, instructors, and advocates.
Benefits for trainees, recreational users and land managers include:
1. Trainees that attend a 16-hour COTI workshop gain valuable skills in crew leadership, safety and risk management, and conservation (so far in 2006, 89% of trainees have reported that they feel very confident as Crew Leaders after taking the training).
2. Recreational users see major benefits when utilizing trails or natural areas improved by COTI-led crews. During 2004-2005, just on USFS lands, COTI-trained Crew Leaders constructed 17 miles of trail, maintained 28 miles, and restored 11 miles.
3. The land management agencies and land managers realize significant benefits as COTI increases the number of well-trained staff and volunteers for use on projects. As a result, managers are able to send COTI-trained individuals off to lead conservation projects with the understanding that the work will be completed in a sustainable manner that meets agency guidelines.
4. As land management budgets shrink, the presence of skilled, community-based volunteers is a vital resource, employed to prevent the deterioration of Colorado's natural spaces due to intensified public use.
5. COTI Instructor's Guide to Teaching Crew Leadership for Trails and its companion pieces offer a standardized training package to agencies and organizations. Local, state, and federal land management agencies benefit because all participants will gain specific skills that are uniform across Colorado. Land managers will know what to expect when groups trained with these materials work on projects.
COMMUNICATIONS AND MARKETING
All COTI successes and evaluation results will be shared and publicized regularly through a number of avenues:
1. Monthly eNewsletter
2. Annual Accomplishment Report
3. Online COTI eCommunity and discussion forums
4. COTI website
5. Annual Member Survey
EVALUATING CURRENT NEEDS
An essential part of COTI operations is an annual evaluation of training needs. During the 2005 training season, participants were asked what type of training they would need in the future. Other input comes from feedback on crew leader evaluations; informal requests; focus group data; observations by the training steering committee; and priorities listed in the 2006 work plan.
The following general skills training topics were identified for 2006:
1. Trail maintenance skills. Participants wanted expanded versions of the maintenance training module of the COTI crew leader curricula without the safety and leadership skills. Participants wanted mini workshops or full day workshops dedicated to drainage structure maintenance; corridor clearing; and tread maintenance.
2. Trail construction skills. Participants wanted expanded versions of the construction training of the COTI crew leader curricula without the safety and leadership skills. Participants wanted more time dedicated to learning how to construct a trail.
3. Advance trail maintenance skills. Participants did not single out specific advanced trail maintenance skills training that they wanted, rather, most indicated "more training" or "advanced skills training." Master Instructors have indicated what topics they are interested in teaching. The lack of specificity does create difficulty for COTI to select and advertise training opportunities. In this case, it is recommended that a variety of advanced skills training workshops are offered with the understanding that audience participation may be limited.
4. Weed management. Although not a topic highly noted by trails-focused trainees, this topic is important to ecological restoration. Also, weed management is one of the four areas of concern to public lands according to Dale Bosworth, Chief of the USDA Forest Service. COTI should prepare volunteers and staff for the possible shift in focus by the Forest Service.
5. Volunteer management. Again, not a topic mentioned by most trainees, volunteer management training will be most valuable to land management staff. The BLM's new volunteer management plan mentions COTI under numerous objectives.
6. Sawyer certification for volunteers. This very popular training workshop should be considered for 2006. Considerations should be made, however, by the fact that USDA Forest Service employees must teach the workshop, and it has become increasingly difficult to find FS staff that have the time to teach this very involved workshop. All attempts should be made to offer another workshop in the spring of 2006.
7. Other topics: Trail design for multiple users and users with disabilities was not one of the highly requested training topics, however, a very popular training workshop at the State Trails Symposium.
FUTURE GOALS and STRATEGIES
These goals are taken from COTI's Strategic Plan 2005-10. COTI will accomplish its mission by achieving the following goals. Specific strategies are listed under each of the the six goals:
1. Conduct ongoing identification and evaluation of land stewardship training needs of Colorado's local, state, and federal land managers and non profit organizations.
2. Establish and adopt standardized leadership and conservation skills curricula that are widely accepted and used.
3. Using COTI curricula, coordinate and deliver quality conservation leadership training workshops throughout the state.
4. Widely promote, publicize and recruit for all training opportunities available to volunteers and agency staff.
5. Establish assessment criteria, evaluate the program, and compare outcomes to the goals and objectives outlined in this strategic plan. .
6. Establish ongoing and sustainable funding.
Additional information on Colorado Outdoor Training Initiative (COTI) is available from http://www.voc.org/. Some of the training currently offered by COTI may also be available on a contract basis to other States. COTI partners are also planning to be available to consult with States, other agencies, and nonprofit groups to advance their own training programs.
Merger of COTI with Volunteers for Outdoor Colorado
Formation of the Outdoor Stewardship Institute (OSI): The Merger
On July 19, 2007, driven by a desire to strengthen training and stewardship services and achieve better economies of scale, members of the Colorado Outdoor Training Initiative (COTI) and Volunteers for Outdoor Colorado (VOC) Boards of Directors approved a corporate merger of the two organizations. The finalized merger plan created the Outdoor Stewardship Institute (OSI), a program of VOC, and formed the Outdoor Stewardship Institute Advisory Board.
Guided by the Advisory Board, the Outdoor Stewardship Institute will:
• manage and expand all of COTI’s existing program and training functions,
• provide a range of additional stewardship services from technical advising to volunteer management,
• organize and deliver land stewardship and conservation leadership training workshops, and
• develop new training curricula, services and programming that meet the needs of stakeholders.
Staffing and Advisory Board
The Outdoor Stewardship Institute will be led by a Deputy Director, who will report to the VOC Executive Director, Ann Baker Easley. The OSI Advisory Board will consist of up to twelve members and include a minimum of three seats for federal and state land management agency representatives. Current COTI Board Chairman Kim Frederick will serve as Chair of the Advisory Board who will oversee the direction and future activities of the Outdoor Stewardship Institute. Kim will also serve as member of the VOC Board of Directors. The VOC Board of Directors will be responsible for financial oversight and governance of OSI.
We are sad to announce that Walt Horner, COTI Executive Director, tendered his resignation to the COTI Board of Directors prior to the merger. He will remain in his role and work with the Advisory Board until mid-August, at which time he will need to relocate to Boston, MA for family reasons.
In merging the two organizations, VOC and COTI are poised to increase statewide stewardship capacity by providing volunteer management resources and training and technical assistance to communities, organizations and agencies across Colorado and the country. Benefits for:
• Streamline funding and staff resources when managing agency and volunteer training needs.
• Increase the quality and quantity of citizen stewards that are able to lead stewardship projects in concert with land managers.
• Access one centralized location for COTI’s respected training curricula and programs as well as VOC’s technical expertise and strengths in volunteer management, marketing and outreach.
• Effectively collaborate with a variety of stakeholders to identify and develop new training and stewardship partnerships.
• An assurance that training will continue to be of the highest quality and employ the latest leadership and stewardship skills and techniques.
• Develop a comprehensive set of leadership and stewardship skills that are transferable to a variety of land management agencies and organizations.
Also available to download in pdf format (93 kb)
See the companion publication: A Checklist and Brainstorming Guide for Trails Training
Outdoor Stewardship Institute, c/o Volunteers for Outdoor Colorado, 600 S. Marion Pkwy, Denver, CO 80209 (303) 715-1010
The National Trails Training Partnership is an alliance of Federal agencies, training providers, nationwide supporters, and providers of products and services. Visit the online calendar of training opportunities, access hundreds of trail-related resources, read the news, learn how you can help, and see training resources in your state.
This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Highway Administration under Cooperative Agreement DTFH61-06-H-00023. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the Author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the Federal Highway Administration.